按Enter到主內容區
:::
現在位置 首頁 > 社福專區 > 婦女 > 婦女福利
  • 友善列印
  • 回上一頁

研究案--臺中市婦女個人與組織性社會參與和實踐行動分析

  • 最後異動時間: 2021-04-19
  • 發布單位: 臺中市政府社會局‧婦女福利及性別平等科第一股

臺中市婦女個人與組織性社會參與和實踐行動分析

  1. 計畫主持人(包括協同主持人):許雅惠教授、張英陣教授
  2. 報告內容臺中市婦女個人與組織性社會參與和實踐行動分析
  3. 報告摘要

【本文報告摘要】

婦女的社會參與和實踐行動,可由幾個層面來彰顯其價值:第一,是一種公民政治的民主體現;第二,是一種個人增強權能(政治的、經濟的、社會的)的展演場域;第三,社會參與能夠增生人與人之間的社會信任與凝聚。本計畫以質化與量化的研究策略,探討臺中市婦女在個人層次與組織層次的社會參與狀況,分析其社會參與動機、經驗、阻礙;並深入理解婦女對其社會參與和實踐行動的效益評估。研究將聚焦於較狹義的社會參與,主要包括個人性的志願服務和社團參與、公民社會組織參與(社區治理、婦女團體領導)等。

本研究方法以質性、量化研究之混合設計,而資料蒐集將以個別或焦點團體深度訪談法、社會調查法等策略進行資料蒐集,以回應研究問題與目的。深度訪談與問卷調查對象設定為:曾接受過志工教育訓練或服務於臺中市志工運用單位之婦女;臺中市社區發展協會、婦女服務團體、社區關懷據點等組織之女性負責人或女性核心幹部;社會團體之女性負責人或會員等。本計畫自10911日開始執行,至10910月底止, 共計完成有效問卷601份,達成率120%;個別訪談15人次,焦點團體一場次。

主要的研究結論如下:

  • 曾有志工服務、社區治理、婦團領袖等社會參與經驗並自願受訪的女性,年齡較多為中高齡,一般社團參與者則比較年輕;反應出臺灣女性在社會參與上仍受家庭照顧責任影響。大致上,教育程度、有無工作、有無養育子女等,在四種不同社會參與類型上表現出較多差異。
  • 社交型休閒活動是多數受訪者的共同選擇,數位社群媒體的使用普及,有助於促進婦女社會參與;社會團體或社會活動的參與類型則偏向以慈善、公益、宗教參與為主。多數受訪者參與志願服務的時間都長達10年以上。參與社區治理者多數仍以老人關懷照顧據點為主要實踐場域。婦女團體的困境較多,政府培力與資源挹注是婦團經營者的主要困難所在。
  • 就自我效能來說,社團會員的自我效能高於社區治理與志願服務者;九成受訪者表達自己生活得「還算快樂」、「很快樂」。多數志願服務參與者以自我學習成長、行善助人、提升人際關係為服務動機,但會以時間、地點、服務內容等來決定是否從事志願服務。
  • 社會信任度上,相較於婦團領袖和志願服務者,社區治理和社團會員的表現分數較低;但八成以上受訪者同意人性是偏向善良與誠懇的敘述。超過五成的受訪者都有助人意願。
  • 多數受訪者對婚姻平權的議題持保留態度,近有較年輕的社團會員表態贊成,顯示不同年齡世代間存有價值差異。有關其他性別政策議題則各有不同程度的認知理解,顯示性別政策宣導上仍有待加強。
  • 隨著臺灣高齡社會的趨勢,婦女在社會參與的意圖上也展現是為了將來自己健康老化的規劃,期望能從社區組織、婦女團體或一般民間團體中擴展興趣、學習技藝及經營社區關懷與照顧據點等等。而「學習」也成為女性增能中重要的成長關鍵。
  • 目前中市婦女團體領導所帶領的團體多偏向傳統婦女慈善和服務型態,其社會參與明顯具有關懷倫理與慈善典範的特性,對於較具政治性的公民社會典範不感興趣。相對的在倡議動能及性平議題的掌握上也較為生疏、薄弱。即便有較大型專業婦女服務團體,基本上也因為政府的承辦廠商,故對政府監督、建言力道相對薄弱。

本研究主張,唯有透過個人的意識覺醒與集體的行動參與,在雙管式充權下,女性才能實際參與決策過程,進而在生活中的各項領域縮短性別落差,促進性別平等。個人式的社會參與,有賴時間、金錢、資訊的到位,可以獲得個人的人力資本、社會資本、文化資本等多方位效益。而組織性的社會參與,則需要更多政策與教育的行動:政府應挹注更多的政策資源,撐起更大參與決策空間,促進公民社會的蓬勃發展;而教育應是持續不輟地,讓人人都能對批判性與自由言論,給予絕對的尊重;這就是民主的真諦。

本研究依據研究結論,分別列出短期可行及中長期可行之具體的建議以供參考。

 

Abstract

There are several ways of valuing women's social participative action, firstly, it is a democratic embodiment of civil politics; secondly, it is a performance field of individual empowerment (political, economic and social); thirdly, social participation can increase social trust and cohesion between people.

As a mixed methods research design, social survey, individual in-depth interview and focus group in-depth interview as used as data collecting methods to investigate women’s social participation in Taichung, both at individual and organizational levels. The motivation, experience and obstacles of social participation are intensively discussed and the effectiveness of social participation is evaluated in this study.  Although social participation can be understood from various domains, this study mainly looks at women’s participative actions in voluntary sector, community organization, associations and women's right organization.

Women who have had trained and volunteered in Taichung City, served as female presidents and committees in Community Development Association, women's right organization, and other associations are invited to participate in this study.  In total 601 valid questionnaires have been completed, with a completion rate of 120%. 15 women and 5 experts participate in qualitative design.

The main findings include

  1. Most of the women who had participation experiences in volunteer service, community governance, women's rights organization and other associations are mainly middle-aged, with only associational participants are relatively younger. It implies that women's social participation is quite restrained by their time, roles and family care responsibility. Generally speaking, there are various differences showed between women’s educational, employment and parenting status.
  2. Social leisure activities are the most common choice of respondents. The popularity of digital social media helps to promote women's social participation; while the types of social organizations/social activities tend to be in relation with charity, public welfare and religion. Most of the respondents have participated in voluntary service for more than 10 years. Most of the participants in community governance still take care of the elderly as the main practice field.  There are many difficulties for women's groups. Most women's rights organization face the difficulties of resource insufficiency and partnership with the government.
  3. In terms of self-efficacy, the self-efficacy of association members is highest than those who participated at community governance and volunteer service. 90% of the respondents expressed that they lived a "happy life" and "very happy life".  Most participants doing voluntary services take self-learning and growth, doing good and helping others, and improving interpersonal relationship as their service motivation, but they will decide whether to engage in voluntary service by time, place and service content.
  4. In terms of social trust, compared with the leaders of women's rights organization and volunteers, the performance scores of community governance and community members were lower; however, more than 80% of the respondents agreed with the notion of ‘human nature was kind and sincere’. More than 50% of the respondents are willing to help others.
  5. Most of the respondents have reservations about the issue of ‘equal rights in same-sex marriage’, and some younger members have expressed their support, which shows that there are a big gap of attitudes between different age groups. On the other hand, the degrees of cognitive understanding of gender policy issues varied. It suggests that gender policy advocacy needs to be strengthened.
  6. One of the important reasons for women to participate in community is to prepare and plan for their own health and aging. They expect to expand their interests, learn skills and operate practices in community care organizations, women's right groups or general non-governmental organizations. `Learning" has become an important goal for women's empowerment.
  7. The women's right organizations in Taichung city now tend to be traditional, most are doing charity and service work. Their social participation obviously has the characteristics of caring ethics and charity model, and is less interested in the more political civil society model. On the other hand, they are relatively unfamiliar and mastering with the initiative momentum and gender issues. Even if there are some professional service organizations, their power of supervisory and advice to the government are relatively weak under the system of purchase of service contracting.

This study argues, with individual awareness and collective action participation, women can actually participate in the decision-making process and narrow the gender gap, to promote gender equality in all areas of life. Personal social participation depends on the availability of time, money and information, for various benefits such as human capital, social capital and cultural capital can be generated. The organized social participation requires more policy and educational actions: the government should invest more resources, support more women to participate in decision-making process, and promote the vigorous development of civil society. Education should be continuous, for that everyone can give absolute respect to critical thinking and free speech; this is the essence of democracy.

Based on the conclusion of the study, suggestions are listed for the government to take actions to promote women’s social participation to empower women.

  • 市府分類: 社會福利
  • 發布日期: 2021-04-19
  • 點閱次數: 36